As far as my teacher advised, the mind must be ‘stilled’ stabilised and expanded before any Daoist self-cultivation is attempted. This is the Qianfeng Lineage as I have experienced it. One’s physical life must be purified through discipline and vegetarianism. One’s mind must have greed, hatred and delusion uprooted. As the Qianfeng Lineage is intimately integrated with Chinese Ch’an Buddhism, it is the Hua Tou method which is used to work directly on the structure of the mind. The jing and qi travel up the Governing Vessel, which travels from an inch in-front of the anus but behind the scrotum, up the spine and around the top of the head, culminating in the upper palate of the mouth. The tongue touches the palate and connects the rising Governing Vessel to the descending Conception Vessel which starts in the tongue and travels down the front of the body. This travels through the genital area and links with the Governing Vessel near the anus. This is one complete cycle of inner energy cultivation. As the inner energy travels up the Governing Vessel (to the top of the head) the question ‘Who?’ is asked. As the inner energy travels down the Conception Vessel, the question ‘is hearing?’ is used. The full Hua Tou is ‘Who is hearing?’ and the body is split into two even halves – even though the Governing Vessel travels further than the top of the head. All sensation is returned to its non-perceptual essence until the non-perceptual essence is fully comprehended, understood and realised.
Although I can sit with cross-legs and circulate the jing and qi (through the shen) in cycles of 360 repetitions, I find that in the transcendent stage, the parameters of this practice dissolve, disappear and are not required. The enhanced awareness itself penetrates (and opens) all the energy channel within and around the body, whilst linking the inner body to the outer environment through energy flow and psychological awareness. When this state is accessed, I am sat in the cross-legged meditation position with the hands in the usual positions required for Qianfeng practice. I can perform the usual circulation in the traditional manner, but at this time in my life this seems to be far too limited in scope. After years of practice, the practice has given way to a new ability and new perspective. I can feel the blood and energy channels ‘open’ and ‘unify’ fully – or more specifically - I become ever more aware of the ‘open’ and ‘unified’ reality of my inner-outer manifestation. My ‘intention’ (意- Yi) clears, expands, liberates, strengthens and generates contentment, boundless love and a gentle wisdom. This is an insight into how I personally practice with a similar if not identical reality unfolding when I move through my martial arts forms (although I am drawn ever more to ‘stillness’ and ‘awareness’).
Richard Hunn lived in Kyoto, Japan from 1992-2006. Indeed, he ended his days living in an old samurai house with his loving wife Taeko. They practiced 'Kyudo' (弓道), or the 'Way of the Bow' together in a local 'Dojo', and Richard Hunn said to me that he knew he was getting ill when during one training session he could no longer 'draw' the bow - an activity he could usually perform with an effortless ease. Richard Hunn was a strongly built English gentleman and with his mind being expansive and free - he could 'release' the arrow with no subject-object discrimination. When he could not 'draw' the bow, he gently returned the bow to the neutral position and took the arrow out - placing everything neatly on the ground he was kneeling on and entered the state of meditation. The old master (who had been watching) came quietly over and whispered that Richard should immediately visit a doctor. The doctor confirmed advanced pancreatic cancer and said Richard had 6 months to live. This was in 2004. Through a combination of Western medicine, TCM and qigong, Richard Hunn lived for another two years before passing away sat-up in a Kyoto hospital bed.
In 2003, whilst visiting my home in Sutton - South London - Richard Hunn (between long periods of seated meditation and in-depth discussions) handed me a collection of photographs, with each in varying stages of decay. He asked if I could 'reconstitute' the pictures and breathe new life into them. I handed these artefacts to my mother - Diane Wyles - who is an expert in this matter, and she repaired each and every one. Above, is the picture of Zhao Bichen (1860-1942) that Richard Hunn found in a Japanese language magazine. The script accompanying this image includes both Japanese and Chinese ideograms. Diane Wyles was able to rescue the image and make it presentable as the original was in a very bad state and falling apart. Unfortunately, as Richard's illness became all-consuming, our many projects fell by the wayside and I never got to see the original magazine. Although Richard Hunn left me a box of his documents kept at his home in Kyoto, due to a problem with access and one or two other issues, I have not yet received this inheritance 13 years after his passing. Still, I do possess the above picture which proves that at least some Japanese people were interested in Chinese Daoist practice. Richard explained to me that the magazine spoke with a great respect of Zhao Bichen's life and accomplishments.
Are Daoists believing in things that are not there? I am a realist who believes in science and the primacy of matter, whilst fully acknowledging the importance of consciousness. My view is that Daoism is a science but one which allows the effect of consciousness upon matter. I am not talking about any notion of idealism, or suggesting that the human mind can effect change in the environment without recourse to intermediate action. (Although ’mind to mind’ or ‘mind to object’ communication may be possible, I do not believe it has been adequately proven at this present time). What I am suggesting is that when the mind interacts with the interior of the body it occupies, there is an entirely different and unique relationship between mind and matter, which is non-existent between the mind and external object (as far as we know), or at least very different. When awareness is correctly directed and focused upon the bodily processes, then jing (精), qi (氣) and shen (神) manifest (as an integration of consciousness and matter). As matters stand, this capacity is not yet able to be measured by modern science, and so therefore remains outside of its scrutiny. Daoism offers a methodology of specific awareness which generates that which is searched for – it is a mind - body co-operation and not a pre-existing and independent material process. Yes, the physical body exists and can be measured to confirm its presence within time and space, but jing, qi and shen are not like this. They are the product of a material body fed through the filter of an all-embracing consciousness awareness. If this is the case, then what is the point of Daoism? Why not just forget about it and consign it to the dustbin of history? The reason is that when the mind and body interact in this manner, strength is built, health is made more robust, and life is extended. All this is achieved without recourse to modern pharmacology.
I have Richard Hunn’s 1967 (hardback) copy of the English translation of Richard Wilhelm’s ‘Secret of the Golden Flower’. Richard Hunn discussed this translation with Charles Luk - the consensus being that although very well translated from the German into English by CF Baynes – this work is Eurocentric, misleading and hopelessly ‘Orientalist’ in the sense that relatively straightforward Chinese Daoist concepts are presented through a misleading and obscuring filter of Christianity, theosophy and Jung’s ‘psycho-babble’. Charles Luk taught Richard Hunn the original Chinese text (alongside the ‘Hui Ming Jing’ - 慧命經). The ‘Secret of the Golden Flower’ is written in Chinese script as ‘太乙金華宗旨’ (Tai Yi Jin Hua Zong Zhi) - or ‘Grand Unity Golden Flower Lineage Purpose’. Although Richard Wilhelm attributed this text to ‘Lu Dongbin’ (吕洞宾) [796-1016], many modern scholars attribute it to his disciple – Wang Chongyang (王重陽) [1113-1870] - the Founder of the ‘Quanzhen’ (全真) or ‘Complete Reality’ School. One of his disciples was ‘Qui Chuji’ (丘處機) [1148-1227] - who Founded the ‘Longmen’ (龍門), or ‘Dragon Gate’ School. After Charles Luk explained the genuine ‘Qianfeng Xiantian’ (千峰先天派), or ‘Thousand Peaks Prenatal’ School as passed on to him by Master Zhao Bichen (趙避塵) [1860-1942], then Richard Hunn was able to ‘penetrate’ the obscuration created by Wilhelm and Jung in the German-English translation. Interestingly, Wilhelm (who is treated with a certain amount of respect in modern China for at least ‘trying’ to understand Chinese culture), he also translated the ‘Hui Ming Jing’ (慧命經), or ‘Enlightened Life Classic’. This was written by ‘Liu Huayang’ (柳華陽) [1736－？], who together with Wu Shouyang (伍守阳) [1574-1644] - Founded the ‘Wu Liu’ School – through which Zhao Bichen inherited the Quanzhen and Longmen teaching.
In reality, Richard Wilhelm (working in the 1920s), armed with a thoroughly Western intelligence and a Christian background, had no idea what genuine (ethnic Daoism) actually was, and it is clear from many of his comments that he also did not understand Chinese Buddhism, or exactly what Buddhist enlightenment is. These errors were compounded by Carl Jung’s misjudging and misinterpretation of Chinese culture, whilst attempting to fit it into a broad Eurocentric template. In reality, the ‘Golden Flower’ text is a basic method of Daoist meditation explained by Master Zhao Ming Wang (赵避尘) (b. 1966) numerous times in his Chinese language blog – which I have translated into English. There is no mystery involved in any of it. Charles Luk said that once the rue meaning is understood, then the Wilhelm text can be used by a practitioner in the West who knows how to translate the transliteration, but notice(1964) ‘ how different Wilhem’s explanation is to the pages of translation provided by Charles Luk in his (1970) ‘Taoist Yoga’, and his (1964) ‘Secrets of Chinese Meditation’ - particularly the Chapters upon Taoist Meditation and Taoist Practice.
Despite all the apparent issues with Richard Wilheelm's transliteration and understanding, I personally appreciate his efforts and think this book records an earlier time in East-West relations. Richard Hunn (like myself) studied the work of Carl Jung. Again, although I am critical of Jung's political ideas, and do not necesarily adhere to his interpretation of Eastern culture, I also know that when he was in his final years most of his viewpoints changed entirely to the extent where he praised the Chinese Ch'an Master Xu Yun (虛雲) [1840-1959]. Things exist in cycles and like my Mainland Chinese academic colleagues, I recognise reality as it is and as it has been, and with love in my heart, we move forward together into a progressive future!
You must look within with clarity of vision and insight. Without a pristine vision of the inner processes, nothing within Daoist self-cultivation can be achieved. Illness, injury and emotional agitation all lead to obscuration of the inner processes, as does bodily discomfort of any kind. We can adjust our lifestyles and manipulate our environment to reduce this discomfort (particularly in the early days of training), but the fact remains that eventually a certain strength of meditative insight must be developed that penetrates and irons-out all discomfort, just as it penetrates every bodily cell and expands out into the environment. Within Daoist iconology, this is sometimes depicted as occupying other bodies or objects whilst a ‘thread’ of awareness extends from the mind and body of the practitioner – linking the ‘one’ to the ‘many’. Touching the tongue to the palate connects the energy channels and allows the jing and qi to flow down into the lower dan tian, whilst the area of the anus is stimulated and the flowing energy is drawn round and back-up. Sometimes a sense of bliss accompanies the micro and macro circulatory orbits that is related to sexual orgasm but without the emission or requirement for a sexual partner (as no base desire is involved).
ACW - 釋大道 (24.9.2019) UK Qianfeng Sub-Branch of the 千峰先天派 (Qian Feng Xian Tian Pai) - Thousand Peaks Prenatal School (Beijing)
Martial arts practice is an important part of Qianfeng training. Master Zhao Bichen (1860-1942) learned various martial arts from the 36 teachers he trained under, and out of this rich tapestry he chose a core body of martial knowledge that has become associated with the ‘Zhao Gate’ (or ‘Zhao Family’) of Beijing. These are not the only martial arts suitable for Daoist self-cultivation, but they do serve as a sound and solid foundation. The purpose of these martial arts is to stimulate the flow, storage and retainment of jing (essential nature) and qi (vital force) energy, and the development of shen (expanded ‘empty’ conscious awareness that contains all things). On the other hand, Zhao Bichen was also a renowned martial artist who beat all those who confronted him in a violent manner throughout his life. When he was a tax collector working on the water ways of Beijing, and when he was a bodyguard, his fighting prowess was well-known throughout the area – and even ‘feared’. He even had a fight with the great martial artist known as ‘Du Xinwu (杜心五)’ - with Zhao Bichen fighting him to a ‘draw’. Afterwards, Master Du Xinwu became a disciple of Grand Master Zhao Bichen – and dedicated his life to perfecting the Qianfeng methodology.
Indeed, on July 23rd, 1953, Master Du Xinwu passed away peacefully whilst sat-up in meditation (aged 84 years old). This was reported without question all over ‘New’ China. This is a similar story to that of the earlier example of Grand Master Zhao Bichen who passed away sat upright in 1942 (aged 82 years old). Both Zhao Bichen and Du Xinwu were traditionally trained martial artists who believed that China needed to radically modernize if her ancient traditions had any chance of surviving in the contemporary world. Five times Master Du Xinwu travelled to Japan to accept ‘challenges’ from the top Sumo Wrestlers of the era – and five times he defeated each of these opponents. As he caught the eye of Revolutionary leader Sun Yat-Sen (孙中山), Du Xinwu was hired as his personal bodyguard (with rumours that both Sun and Du were men of Hakka Chinese ethnicity). As Du Xinwu was born in Cili County, western Hunan province, this might well have been a possibility. As ‘Xiangxi’ (湘西) bandits infested this area, the local mountain people trained communally in various forms of armed (including swords) and unarmed Chinese martial arts as a means of self-defense. This is the milieu that Du Xinwu was brought-up within – a culture rich in martial arts practice and real fighting that ended in death or maiming (for both sides). It is remarkable that by the time the highly experienced Du Xinwu fought the elderly Grand Master Zhao Bichen – Zhao Bichen was able to neutralize every technique used by Du Xinwu. I have been told that Zhao Bichen used ‘Eagle Claw’ (鹰爪 - Ying Zhao) to prevent Du Xinwu from gaining the upper hand. This happening was enough for Du Xinwu to recognize Zhao Bichen as a true master and subordinate himself to him.
Even if you practice martial arts to gather qi and circulate jing – the traditional view in China is that a superior state of mind should enable a Daoist martial artist to dominate in any violent encounter. This is not the encouragement of violence – but rather the exact opposite. Through the possession of superior insight and physical ability, any violent threat can be over-come and peace restored as soon as possible. This is the correct Daoist attitude – violence is prevented and neutralized through superior positioning, movement and stillness. Certainly, Master Zhao Ming Wang (b. 1966) does not emphasize fighting ability - as many who come to him are very ill, weak or otherwise unsuited to this ability – but every Qianfeng ‘Master’ or ‘Senior Disciple’ is expected to be able to defuse violent situations through the martial applications of ‘peace’. If you find this confusing – good.
CW - 釋大道 (16.9.2019) UK Qianfeng Sub-Branch of the 千峰先天派 (Qian Feng Xian Tian Pai) - Thousand Peaks Prenatal School (Beijing)
Chinese Language References:
English Language Reference:
From early 1989 until mid 2000 – Richard Hunn (1946-2006) would only emphasis the Ch’an training. The bulk of this training was completed between 1989-1991 – after which Richard Hunn relocated to Kyoto, Japan. After realizing ‘stillness’ of mind, followed by the apparent expansion of this emptiness from being limited to just the head, to including the enter environment (and everything within it), Richard Hunn emphasized the ‘integration’ of the ‘form’ and ‘void’ - stating ‘do not be attached to the void – nor hindered by phenomena.’ However, from 2000-2004 Richard Hunn focused upon Qianfeng Daoism through visits to our family home in South London, regular letters and long-distance telephone calls. As his health began to decline (due to lung and pancreatic cancer), 2005 was reduced to telephone calls and the occasional card (his Xmas card for 2005 read ‘Anything is possible’). As the cancer was progressing, I received a long telephone call in July of 2006, where Richard Hunn reiterated his transmission(s) to myself, and stressed that I must pursue these issues no matter what, to the best of my ability. We were hoping he would recover, but when he gave-up Western medicine and instead embraced only qigong and Daoist methods, we were quietly beginning to think the end might be near. As we were preparing to fly out to Japan, I received a telephone call from Taiko – Richard Hunn’s wife – and his son – Charles – both of whom informed me that Richard Hunn had passed away sat upright in a Kyoto hospital bed (on October 1st, 2006). His last words being ‘Let’s go to the bookshop and buy some Wordsworth.’
There are two ways of practicing Daoist nei dan – the superficial and the profound. Most are quite happy with the superficial which involves general keep fit (such as walking, martial arts and other routines), together with a good diet and responsible lifestyle. The superficial can be quite sophisticated and achieve considerable results. Since a child I have been practicing Chinese (Hakka) martial arts – although I ceased all martial movement during a period of intense hua tou (Ch’an) practice (1989-1992). Indeed, I stopped ALL worldly interaction at this point so as to ‘freeze’ the mind. This effort came to fruition and when I finally picked up a book and read it much later – it was like the words were tumbling out of my eyes and onto the page (a sign that the mind had ‘turned’ at its deepest levels as stated in the Lankavatara Sutra). When I re-started martial movement, it was ‘new’ and yet ‘familiar’. Still, Richard Hunn remained ‘silent’ about Qianfeng Daoism and wasn’t keen on me reading Charles Luk’s ‘Taoist Yoga’. We had spent the last three years ‘putting down’ or ‘ignoring’ every mind or body sensation and manifestation and the next stage was understanding the removal of the false barrier between the subjective and the objective.
Although Charles Luk (1898-1978) had met with Zhao Bichen (1860-1942) in 1936 – and had promised to translate Zhao Bichen’s manual into English (receiving a nei dan transmission) - he did not accomplish this task until 1970, after he had fully ‘stilled’ and ‘expanded’ his mind, and fully understood the Qianfeng methodology. Without ‘stilling’ and ‘expanding’ the mind’s awareness through the mind, body and environment, there can be no profound grasping of the Qianfeng method. This is not a problem as many people never advance beyond this stage and are perfectly happy with their practice. This is as true in China as it is in the West – but the ‘superficial’ must not be presented as the ‘profound’ - as one or two claim in the world of international Daoism. My view is that if you do not discipline your mind and body over many years, and have not ‘stilled’ or ‘expanded’ the mind, you cannot practice ‘profound’ Qianfeng Daoism, although you can most certainly benefit from ‘superficial’ Qianfeng – you will not learn this from me unless in special circumstances.
Qianfeng methodology has already been ‘modernized’ by Master Zhao Bichen (1860-1942), and part of this evolution has been the adoption of certain Western biological concept and principles, which have not replaced traditional Chinese thinking, but have rather reinforced the validity of ancient Chinese (Daoist) science. This is not very well known in the West because it happened in China in the early 1930s, with the Western terms being presented not in English, but rather in their Chinese translation (for use by Chinese-speaking people). Master Zhao Bichen was a very clever person. Logic and reason were emphasized by Zhao Bichen over superstition and ignorance. This is exactly the attitude the average Western person would have toward a medical doctor, avoiding any doctors who appealed to nonsensical beliefs, or overly used placebo, etc. Qianfeng Daoism has been modernized – but it has been modernized not by Western force of arms or economic terrorism – but rather by the Chinese people themselves, in their own time and in their own. Western science has not replaced TCM, but is used side by side in China. It is also true that Master Zhao Bichen did study Western science, understood it fully and adopted what he thought was useful for his Daoism, but he still preferred traditional Chinese thinking. He avoided dogma and prejudice and made use of what was useful in both systems whilst not allowing his personal opinion to interfere in the developmental process.
As Westerners, we should follow the good and virtuous example of Master Zhao Bichen, and we should do this regardless of where we live, or how we live. Master Zhao Bichen abolished the traditional Daoist practice of one master teaching one disciple per generation, and instead opened his doors to all and sundry. This does not mean that everyone is suitable for the training, but it does grant everyone an equal chance to ‘try’. Rich or poor – everyone can train regardless of social status, gender or ethnicity. Master Zhao Ming Wang (b. 1966) tends to prefer ‘face to face’ training (at least in the beginning stages), and he does this because like a TCM doctor, Master Zhao Ming Wang will also ‘treat’ the student by stimulating the qi energy channels that flow throughout the body (and mind) as a means to release psycho-physical blockages (usually stored as ‘tension’ in the musculature surrounding the inner organs), build physical strength and clear the mind. He does this by examining the attitude and bodily movement of the student, the colour of the eyes and tongue, and the strength of the various pulses, etc. He also advises a vegetarian diet and no alcohol. Master Zhao Ming Wang massages the muscles, and uses a traditional Daoist acupressure stick which hits the ‘points’ of the qi energy channels exactly. A student may lie down to receive this treatment, or sit upright in a chair. Master Zhao Ming Wang also teaches people with disabilities and adjusts this treatment to their needs. (This is an important point as I have seen other Daoist schools ‘banning’ disabled people on the grounds that they are ‘bad luck’ - this is exactly the ignorance that Master Zhao Bichen abolished).
Western students of Qianfeng Daoism have to meaningfully make sense of all this in a manner that fully respects the cultural view of China (as expressed through the Qianfeng School), understands what Master Zhao Ming Wang a) expects, and b) is talking about, and do all this whilst carefully navigating a course through the choppy seas of cultural adaptations and potential misunderstandings. My own view is that all this must be achieved through a sense of spiritual self-sufficiency. Spiritual self-sufficiency has nothing to do with social status or economic situation – but is rather a reliance upon the realization of the empty mind ground (shen), and how this understanding permeates through the entirety of the body (automatically ‘clearing’ all the qi blockages and building ‘jing’). The mind must be ‘stilled’ to realize this reality which does not require any other stimulus – although this is a rare state to achieve. Stilling the mind is the first crucial stage of Qianfeng Daoist training and can be performed exactly where you are right now. Without the mind being ‘stilled’ the Qianfeng training will be only moderately successful. Whilst training to ‘still’ the mind, a Qianfeng student should train in a traditional Chinese martial art that suits their character (whilst ignoring the pettiness of sport). Regular qigong exercise builds a robust body and ensure a fluid mind. All this can be pursued around a central practice of ‘nei dan’ - or meditation which ‘stills’ the mind (whilst also guiding the breath and the circulation of qi and jing etc). If this is established, then the machinations of the external world will fall into place, ensuring that all paradox and confusion falls away.
ACW - 釋大道 (12.9.2019) UK Qianfeng Sub-Branch of the 千峰先天派 (Qian Feng Xian Tian Pai) - Thousand Peaks Prenatal School (Beijing)
The subjective elements of (nei dan) Daoist training are not confirmed by the rigours of modern science (but this does not mean they do not exist). Zhao Bichen (1860-1942) embraced modern science (which he accessed through Western texts) and even incorporated certain Western (biological) terms into his explanation of ancient Daoist methodology – although it is also true that he preferred ‘Chinese’ science over its Western counterpart. The point is that he integrated modern scientific terms into Chinese Daoist commentaries as a means to prove the ‘scientific’ nature of ancient Chinese thought (which had been demonized by the forces of Western imperialism in China). I was always taught – and prefer – fact over faith, and note this is the position of the Zhao family of Beijing as expressed by Master Zhao Ming Wang (b. 1966) - the generational and lineage inheritor of the Qianfeng School in China. By and large Zhao Ming Wang does not acknowledge the other lineages that ‘claim’ to represent his lineage due to their lack of respect for his status (although this is a complicated issue that needs clarification). Many key disciples of Zhao Bichen founded Qianfeng Schools (such as Niu Jin Bao) - and there is no problem with this – but it is what happened in the second or third generations, etc. On top of this, there are the fake Qianfeng Schools in China that charge huge amounts of money for the qigong forms that Zhao Ming Wang teaches for free, and a fake school in the West (not the US or Europe), which charges huge amounts and teaches a Eurocentric mish-mash of Orientalized ‘Taoism’ - working from the false assumption that no one outside of China possesses the language or cultural skills to check their lineage. I have checked their lineage and it is ‘false’. However, these other groups can do as they please, as Master Zhao Ming Wang insists that once correct knowledge and viewpoint is established, we must not ‘conflict’ with others as this is ‘unDaoist’ - I fully agree with this.
Turning the waterwheel is the ability to separate jing (精) and qi [氣] (from the breath) whilst continuing to circulate this substance through the Governing and Conception Vessels (and beyond). The breath continues the take-in of qi, and to provide the muscular ripple that travels up the spine, over the head and down the face, mouth (with tongue touching the upper palate), throat, sternum, abdomen and groin, etc., but the ‘intention’ of the mind now drives the rarefied and highly condensed jing-qi and shen (神) admixture into a new and extensive orbit that reaches tremendous speeds whilst sat in cross-legged meditation. This can work whilst performing martial arts forms – but only in the highest levels of spiritual self-development. Generally speaking, for the maximum health benefit, the breath must be deep and full and coordinate with all the martial arts movements. The waterwheel can be applied to a combat situation so that deep breathing is not required, and techniques ‘lash’ out at tremendous speeds and cannot be anticipated or countered by an opponent. This mastery is achieved whilst engaged within seated meditation, and not moving meditation (or martial training), but it can be expressed in martial practice after the fact. This is like when the breath ‘ceases’, although of course it does not really ‘cease’, but becomes so subtle that it is hard to discern.
ACW - 釋大道 (8.9.2019) UK Qianfeng Sub-Branch of the 千峰先天派 (Qian Feng Xian Tian Pai) - Thousand Peaks Prenatal School (Beijing)
Adrian Chan-Wyles (內丹 - Shi Da Dao) - Qianfeng Lineage: Zhao Bichen (1860-1942), Charles Luk (1898-1978) and Richard Hunn (1949-2006). Acknowledges Master Zhao Ming (赵明旺) of Beijing as the ONLY Lineage Head of the Zhao Family Lineage of Qianfeng Daoism in China and the world.